Why Black Holes Break The Universe

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Published 2024-04-20
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Today we explore a problem that has haunted theoretical physicists for decades and remains a topic of active debate - do black holes destroy information? A key precept in quantum theory is that information should be conserved, yet anything that falls into a black hole is seemingly obliterated. How can we reconcile our theories of gravity with that of the quantum world? And could the answer transform the way we look at the Universe...

Written & presented by Prof. David Kipping. Special thanks to Prof Janna Levin for fact checking and for her wonderful book that inspired this video, "Black Hole Survival Guide" a.co/d/eqqP6z1

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THANK-YOU to D. Smith, M. Sloan, L. Sanborn, C. Bottaccini, D. Daughaday, A. Jones, S. Brownlee, N. Kildal, Z. Star, E. West, T. Zajonc, C. Wolfred, L. Skov, G. Benson, A. De Vaal, M. Elliott, B. Daniluk, S. Vystoropskyi, S. Lee, Z. Danielson, C. Fitzgerald, C. Souter, M. Gillette, T. Jeffcoat, J. Rockett, D. Murphree, T. Donkin, K. Myers, A. Schoen, K. Dabrowski, J. Black, R. Ramezankhani, J. Armstrong, K. Weber, S. Marks, L. Robinson, S. Roulier, B. Smith, J. Cassese, J. Kruger, S. Way, P. Finch, S. Applegate, L. Watson, E. Zahnle, N. Gebben, J. Bergman, E. Dessoi, C. Macdonald, M. Hedlund, P. Kaup, C. Hays, W. Evans, D. Bansal, J. Curtin, J. Sturm, RAND Corp., M. Donovan, N. Corwin, M. Mangione, K. Howard, L. Deacon, G. Metts, R. Provost, B. Sigurjonsson, G. Fullwood, B. Walford, J. Boyd, N. De Haan, J. Gillmer, R. Williams, E. Garland, A. Leishman, A. Phan Le, R. Lovely, M. Spoto, A. Steele, K. Yarbrough, A. Cornejo, D. Compos, F. Demopoulos, G. Bylinsky, J. Werner, B. Pearson, S. Thayer, T. Edris, B. Seeley, F. Blood, M. O'Brien, P. Muzyka, D. Lee, J. Sargent, M. Czirr, F. Krotzer, I. Williams, J. Sattler, J. Smallbon, B. Reese, J. Yoder, O. Shabtay, X. Yao, S. Saverys, M. Pittelli, A. Nimmerjahn, C. Seay, D. Johnson, L. Cunningham, M. Morrow, M. Campbell, R. Strain, B. Devermont, & Y. Muheim.

REFERENCES
► Bekenstein, J. 1972, "Black Holes and Entropy", Physical Review D: ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1973PhRvD...7.2333B
► Hawking, S. 1975, "Particle Creation by Black Holes", Communications In Mathematical Physics,: ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1975CMaPh..43..199H
► Hooft, G.'t, 1993, "Dimensional Reduction in Quantum Gravity", General Relativity & Quantum Cosmology: ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993gr.qc....10026T
► Susskind, L. 1995, "The World as a Hologram", Journal of Mathematical Physics: ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JMP....36.6377S
► Maldacena, J. 1997, "The Large N Limit of Superconformal field theories and supergravity", Advances in Theoretical and Mathematical Physics: ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998AdTMP...2..231M

MUSIC
Licensed by SoundStripe.com (SS) [shorturl.at/ptBHI], Artlist.io, via CC Attribution License (creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) or with permission from the artist.
0:00 Hill - The Travelers [open.spotify.com/track/5EfCXFyDpZmu0u6hM3ByjK?si=7…]
2:51 Chris Zabriskie - We Were Never Meant to Live Here
4:30 Hill - The Great Alchemist [open.spotify.com/track/3PAx36jIsKiQMT9CQsRk4G?si=c…]
9:33 Falls - Life in Binary
11:55 Hill - A Slowly Lifting Fog [open.spotify.com/track/0GgkyL3y22kFslT6wUsKlt?si=3…]
13:23 Falls - Ripley
17:06 Chris Zabriskie - Cylinder Seven
19:11 Joachim Heinrich - Y
21:32 Indive - Halo Drive

CHAPTERS
0:00 Prologue
0:30 Black Holes 101
3:18 Storyblocks
4:30 Unitarity
6:19 Into the Black Hole
7:19 Hawking Radiation
9:33 Entanglement
11:29 The Paradox
13:56 Solutions
15:02 Holography
17:48 Concessions
19:11 Firewall
19:48 Conclusions
21:32 Outro & Credits

#BlackHoles #Cosmology #CoolWorlds

All Comments (21)
  • @CoolWorldsLab
    Thanks to Storyblocks for sponsoring this video! Download unlimited stock media at one set price with Storyblocks: storyblocks.com/CoolWorlds Let me know your thoughts on this one - what do you think will yield: unitarity, equivalence or locality? Do you have a specific solution you favour?
  • @Iamthelolrus
    Please don't break the universe, it's where I keep all my stuff.
  • @vespurrs
    My older brother is a physics professor. When we were growing up, he used to let me look through his telescope (the first time I ever saw Saturn was mind blowing!) while he would explain things about space and the universe using language and concepts that even my brain, with its woefully pitiful lack of mathematical understanding, could comprehend. Long story short, I love these videos because they remind me so much of those nights during my childhood looking up at the sky with wonder while someone explains the universe to me. Thank you for that.
  • Nothing is broken, our math describing what we see as reality is just incomplete. A deeper understanding will come in time. If you think about it, a black hole is the perfect place for our current models to expose their flaws, pointing the way to new knowledge. Its analogous to how Mercury's orbit helped point us towards GR from classical Newtonian physics.
  • @meslud
    fun fact: in german, "Schwarzschild" actually means "black shield", so the Schwarzschild radius translates literally to "black shield radius", which seems somehow very appropriate.
  • @squoblat
    Ah, a physics video about my bank account
  • @s1ndrome117
    I always imagined blackholes as some type of logical glitch in the universe that "crashes" a part of reality like how a game would crash
  • @moriahgamesdev
    Maybe this is the answer to the Fermi Paradox. The best minds of every civilization waste so much time pondering blackhole conundrums they never get round to deflecting the asteroid.
  • @solidicone
    What gets me is we live in a universe with problems like this, things that challenge our very understanding of reality itself.. but we still have people saying the earth is flat and bickering about things like border control. We ain't gonna make it.. are we?
  • @Kossimer
    That clip of Picard at 11:45 had me in tears! Thanks for the best laugh of 2024!
  • @DS-bm6es
    Using pine cones to describe particle spin....there's a first time for everything!! Your video's break my brain, but they are purely amazing at describing complex concepts. Thank you!!
  • @Bezzle.
    The way I had black holes explained to me as a child by a physics professor was to imagine a neutron star was reduced in radius to 1/6, to as little as 1/10th of its current diameter. He said that’s where he believes a round black mass (not a hole) resides. He also explained that light can not escape it because light can not exist inside of a black mass (hole), due to the extreme gravitational forces that quite literal rip apart what created the light. That conversation sparked my curiosity about the universe. This video reminded me of him. Thanks for that.
  • @GabrielRojasBowe
    watching videos like these give me so much motivation to keep going in my PhD. i'm doing neuroscience and although it's not physics, i can definitely relate to that feeling of not knowing how to begin understanding the fundamental properties of what we're studying. the brain can sometimes feel like a black hole and i think that's pretty terrifying, but cool at the same time thanks for the video
  • @Tony-dp1rl
    I love how much science can be built on top of math involving mass, without us having the slightest idea what mass is. Amazing to me.
  • @KevinCullen
    David you talk science and I hear the poetry of reality. You give reality a voice and speak it so eloquently. I'm still riding that high from your recent Cool Worlds Podcast with Lisa which got followed by JMG's Event Horizon interview with Lisa. With these mental delights you are really spoiling us and I'm here for all the courses of this meal of galactic information. Love, love, love what you bring to the table of science presenters. You're a great teacher, your students must be thrilled to get to have you be their professor, I know I am. Disney's Black Hole was a nostalgic and much enjoyed opener. Be well David, grateful for what and how you do these things that you do.
  • @ashraile
    What if black holes don't actually collapse entirely but instead reach an entirely new stage of degenerate matter that just so happens to have an escape velocity greater than the speed of light?
  • @user-wk9vl6ef8u
    The outdoor background is incredible. Wish more YouTubers of your style would try it out. So refreshing ❤
  • @LordHog
    I always love listening to your videos. I can’t fully comprehend all the information, but it is so fascinating
  • @user-zz7ic8dv4h
    This was an AMAZING description and explanation of several elements about black holes that never made sense to me. This is the power of a great teacher and communicator. Thank you