Something Strange Happens When You Follow Einstein's Math

Published 2024-04-29
Einstein was wrong about black holes, what else? Use code veritasium at the link below to get an exclusive 60% off an annual Incogni plan:

A massive thank you to Prof. Geraint F. Lewis and Prof. Juan Maldacena for their expertise and help with this video.

A huge thank you to those who helped us understand this complicated topic: Dr. Suddhasattwa Brahma, Prof. Carlo Rovelli, Dr. Hal Haggard, Prof. Martin Bojowald, Dr. Francesca Vidotto, Prof. Andrew Hamilton, and Dr. Carl-Fredrik Nyberg Brodda.

A special thanks to Alessandro Roussel from ScienceClic for his spectacular simulations and feedback on the video. Check out his channel here:

An excellent book on this topic and an inspiration for this video: Cox, B., & Forshaw, J. (2023). Black holes: the key to understanding the universe.

Join us on Patreon to watch an exclusive bonus video that expands on the topic of white holes

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If you’re looking for a molecular modeling kit, try Snatoms, a kit I invented where the atoms snap together magnetically -

Thorne, K. (1995). Black Holes & Time Warps: Einstein's Outrageous Legacy.
Relativity Playlist by ScienceClic -
Hamilton, A. J. S. (2021). General Relativity, Black Holes, and Cosmology -
Black Hole Events by PBS Space Time -    • Do Events Inside Black Holes Happen?  
Newton’s Letters via The Newton Project -
Einstein, A. (1915). Die feldgleichungen der gravitation. -
Why Time and Space Swap by ScienceClic -    • Why Time and Space swap in a Black Hole  
Schwarzschild, K. (1916). Über das Gravitationsfeld eines Massenpunktes nach der Einsteinschen Theorie. -
Wali, K. C. (1982). Chandrasekhar vs. Eddington—an unanticipated confrontation. -
How to Build a Black Hole by PBS Space Time -    • How to Build a Black Hole  
Oppenheimer, J. R., & Volkoff, G. M. (1939). On massive neutron cores. -
Oppenheimer, J. R., & Snyder, H. (1939). On continued gravitational contraction. -
Schwarzschild Geometry by Andrew Hamilton -
Why all world maps are wrong by Vox -    • Why all world maps are wrong  
Hamilton, A. J., & Lisle, J. P. (2008). The river model of black holes. -
Mapping The Multiverse by PBS Space Time -    • Mapping the Multiverse  
Rotating black hole via Wikipedia -
Wormhole Travel by PBS Space Time -    • Will Wormholes Allow Fast Interstella...  
Morris, M. S., & Thorne, K. S. (1988). Wormholes in spacetime and their use for interstellar travel. -

Images & Video:
D3 Geo Projection Library by Mike Bostock
Interrupted Maps by Jason Davies
Kazmierczak, J. et al. (2021). NASA’s NICER Tests Matter’s Limits. -
Bridgman, T. et al. (2024). M5.1 flare 'Double Whammy', at Active Regions 13559 and 13561. NASA SVS. -
Schnittman, J. et al. (2019). Black Hole Accretion Disk Visualization. -
Wiessinger, S. et al. (2020). A Decade of Sun. NASA SVS. -
Skelly, C. et al. (2017). What is a Neutron Star? NASA SVS. -
What would we see if we fell into a black hole by ScienceClic -    • What would we see if we fell into a B...  
Earth texture -
First image of Sgr A* -
Image of M87 -
Polarized light image of Sgr A* -

Directed by Casper Mebius
Written by Casper Mebius, Derek Muller and Will Wood
Edited by Trenton Oliver
Animated by Fabio Albertelli, Ivy Tello, Mike Radjabov, David Szakaly, Jonny Hyman, and Alessandro Roussel
Illustrated by Jakub Misiek
Filmed by Derek Muller
Additional research by Gregor Čavlović
Produced by Casper Mebius, Derek Muller, Will Wood, Giovanna Utichi, Rob Beasley Spence, Gregor Čavlović, and Emily Taylor

Thumbnail contributions by Jakub Misiek, Ren Hurley and Peter Sheppard
Additional video/photos supplied by Getty Images, Storyblocks, and NASA SVS
Music from Epidemic Sound

All Comments (21)
  • @veritasium
    If you want to pull your data out of a black hole of data brokers, then head to and use code veritasium to get 60% off an annual plan.
  • @john_wack
    Redbull will be the first to cover someone going through a singularity
  • @betterchapter
    Once you get so far into math, the math doesn’t even look like math anymore
  • @X3n0nLP
    The moment the diagram was laid out as a square with a triangle on top I thought "well that kinda seems incomplete" and with every expansion my mind was further blown. So satisfying to watch that diagram slowly grow until it reaches theoretical infinity.
  • I have some issues with the penrose diagram.
    1: The left and right sides of the black hole are seposed to be part of the same surface. It would be more accurate to show it as a cone, but because of limitation of a 2D space it can't look like that. This eliminates the parallell universe.
    2: Black hole can die. The top of the diagram outside the black hole won't lie at infinite time but way before it (maybe exept fore black holes that would survive until the heat death of the universe where time looses meaning). So in that sense it would mean that the time you reach the singularity is when the black hole seases to exists (essentialy a single point in space and in time).
    3: It assumes that the black hole was created at the start of the universe, which is stupid because most if not all are created after. And i am assuming that a white hole is the big bang. And the white hole cone in the diagram would have to connect to all the space edges at 0 time because space essentially started at the big bang untill proven otherwise linking the left and right sides of space outside the black hole to the white hole.
    3.1: The white hole can only exists as a flat line at the bottom of the diagram(a point in reality) to indicate the start of the universe over all space, making normal space a square with diamond shaped black holes to indicate the birth and death of a black hole with the top corner being the singularity

    P.S.: I don't think a singularity can actually move. It is just the space between objects that is running out because it being succed into the objects that are "moving" towards each other.
  • @inder11111
    "he looks back at you, shaking his fist at a constant rate" something only a physicist would say
  • Approaching the problem by using different projections really helped me to understand, for example, why images of everything that fell in do not remain at the event horizon. In fact, the map projection analogy itself made Penrose diagrams suddenly feel much less alien, more intuitive. Also, pleased to see the cooperation with Science Clic, a channel that excels at intuitive explanations. All good!
  • @AHeckman118
    A big issue with sending someone through a singularity to see if it leads to another universe, besides all the ones related to the whole “we’re made of meat” thing, is that if we managed to get someone through a singularity, unless time worked different in that universe somehow, they wouldn’t be able to “turn around” and come back to tell us
  • @zerz4617
    The transition to Penrose diagram was one of the smoothest I’ve ever seen. Never understood it until now
  • @allseriousness
    Insane that you’ve kept 6.3 million people watching so far (after 5 days) and gotten to #1 on trending with a math heavy video with the word math in the title. It’s an educational YouTuber master class
  • @aoleksak
    This has to be one of the best videos I've seen on this topic. The visualizations provided a very clear view on how the obviously complex math led to our theories and what it actually meant, and also did a great job illustrating where our gaps in understanding are and where it might be "just math". Well done.
  • @Company-59
    Your videos are always interesting. I enjoy watching them for years now. But this one takes the biscuit. The way you explain is elegant, comprehensive, and still easy enough for an educated person to follow. You have outdone yourself! Way to go.
  • @ActionLabShorts
    The graphics in your latest videos top most any scientific graphics that exist on the internet. It is very hard to make graphics that are both accurate and understandable. Very well done
  • As a german, I'm still stunned how a person with the name "Schwarzschild" could predict the radius of a black hole. It's such an unbelievable semantic coincident, as it basically is translated to "Blackshield"... Feels very weird hearing this, as I couldn't imagine a better word describing this phenomenon.
  • @SoraNokanto
    Really cool video, but I have a few question :
    - On the Penrose Diagram, the black hole is in our past cone, and so visible, only when we're already inside of it... So what are we looking at, when we "look" at a black hole?
    - What happens to the parallel universe if we undo Penrose Transformation ?
    - If we fall in a black hole, where should we look to observe the parallel universe?
    - How does one go through the ringularity? Do we have to go through infinitly dense line, or in the middle of it?
    - Why can we move freely inside the inner horizon??
    - Is a universe with reverse gravity equivalent to something like "a universe with reverse time (maybe with antimatter and matter switched)"?
    And finally :
    - Does going through the ringularity inverse our gravity, or could we go to the antiverse and bring back some inverse gravity matter to our type of universe?
  • @Lexendraws_
    i paused this video to gather my thoughts and realised i didnt have any. my brain had been melted off.
  • It's an amazing coincidence that the event horizon acts as a kind of "black shield", shielding the events inside from the outside world, and "black shield" is literally what "Schwarzschild" means in german.
  • @popoliodiego
    "This is the simplest solution to the Einstein field equations and it already contains a black hole, a white hole and two universes" Great line.
  • 18:01 As french, i'm really happy to hear that Scienceclic (who is french he just has an englisch channel with a traductor) is in collaboration with such a big channel!